The three-dimensional network can have various circuit functions and system functions, depending on the topological graphics and process specifications of each layer. Under certain process specifications, it is mainly controlled by the topological pattern of each layer, and the topological pattern of each layer is determined by each lithography mask. Therefore, the design of the lithography mask is a key to manufacturing integrated circuits. Starting from the functional requirements of the system or circuit, it is designed according to the actual possible process parameters, and is designed and completed by the computer to assist the design and manufacture of the mask.
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After the chip manufacturing is completed, after inspection, the chips on the silicon wafer are cut down one by one, and the chips with satisfactory performance are packaged on the tube shell to form a complete integrated circuit.
If integrated circuits are distinguished by the transistors that form the basis of their circuits, there are two types of bipolar integrated circuits and MOS integrated circuits. The former is based on bipolar junction planar transistors, and the latter is based on MOS field effect transistors. Figure 3 shows a typical silicon gate N-channel MOS integrated circuit manufacturing process. Generally speaking, the advantages of bipolar integrated circuits are faster, but the disadvantages are lower integration and greater power consumption; and MOS integrated circuits are simpler due to the isolation of MOS devices, the process is simpler, the integration is higher, and power consumption The disadvantage is lower speed. Recently, in the development of exerting their respective advantages and overcoming their own shortcomings, various new devices and circuit structures have emerged.
Integrated circuits are divided according to circuit functions, and there may be mathematical logic circuits based on gate circuits and linear circuits based on amplifiers. The latter develops more slowly than the former due to the harmful interaction between the semiconductor substrate and the working element. Microwave integrated circuits used in microwaves and optical integrated circuits based on III-V compound semiconductor lasers and optical fiber catheters are also under development.